The Japanese began using technical analysis to trade rice in the 17th century. While this early version of technical analysis was different from the US version initiated by Charles Dow around 1900, many of the guiding principles were very similar:
The “what” (price action) is more important than the “why” (news, earnings, and so on).
All known information is reflected in the price.
Buyers and sellers move markets based on expectations and emotions (fear and greed).
The actual price may not reflect the underlying value.
According to Steve Nison, candlestick charting first appeared sometime after 1850. Much of the credit for candlestick development and charting goes to a legendary rice trader named Homma from the town of Sakata. It is likely that his original ideas were modified and refined over many years of trading, eventually resulting in the system of candlestick charting that we use today.